Eastern Prickly Pear Cactus Complete Guide To Grow And Care

Eastern prickly pear, Opuntia humifusa, is a fairly basic cactus. It’s easy to cultivate, hardy enough to withstand temperatures as low as USDA Zone 4a, and has a cheerful, delicate blossom. The eastern prickly pear cactus, native to the eastern United States, lacks the stature of its desert cousin Opuntia ficus-indica (which may reach 15 feet), but this smaller variant brings a touch of the southwest to milder regions and compensates for its tiny size with resilience. The cactus can be grown from cuttings in early summer or from seeds in late spring.

Eastern Prickly Pear Cactus Overview

Common Name Prickly pear, Eastern prickly pear, devil’s tongue
Botanical Name Opuntia humifusa
Family Name Cactaceae
Plant Type Cactus
Mature Size 6–12 in. tall, 12–18 in. wide
Sun Exposure Full sun
Soil Type Sandy, well-drained
Soil pH Neutral to acidic
Bloom Time Summer
Flower Color Yellow, some with red or orange centers
Hardiness Zones 4a – 9a
Native Area North America

Eastern Prickly Pear Care

Prickly pear cacti, which are popular among gardeners in cool climates and desert dwellers alike, require little maintenance. Its stems are segmented into blue-tinted, flat paddle-like segments that range in length from two to seven inches. Midsummer sees the bloom of beautiful yellow blooms with narrow spines curved like a wedge. The flowers often have an orange or crimson core if they are found east of the Appalachian Mountains. The tasty purple or red fruits known as tunas follow the flowers. These are the prickly pears, and they make good pickles and jellies, even if they’re not as big and flavorful as the prickly pears of O. ficus-indica.

Since prickly pears are cacti, their primary requirement is soil that drains properly. Plant in a sandy or gravelly mix, full sun, and use minimal water. Furthermore, your plants should not be frightened if they seem to deflate during the winter; this is a natural reaction to dormancy, and they will swell back up in the spring.

Light Requirements

The eastern prickly pear grows best in full sun for at least eight hours a day, just like most other cacti. However, if planted in hotter climes, such as in a more classic desert landscape, it may tolerate some shade. A larger plant with more blooms in the mid-to-late spring and summer is another benefit of increased light exposure.

Soil and Potting

The prickly pear requires well-draining soil to grow properly. Your best hope is a dry, sandy, or gravelly mixture, but it can also thrive in a mostly clay mixture as long as it drains extremely well and the soil doesn’t hold on to much moisture. Prickly pears don’t require much care when it comes to pH levels, and they do well in a neutral-to-acidic mixture with a pH of 6.0–7.5.

Watering

Prickly pear cacti are known to withstand extreme droughts, so when in doubt, give them less water than you think they need. The normal rainfall in most places should be plenty for the cactus to grow, but if not, you need schedule waterings for every two to four weeks.

Temperature and Environment

The prickly pear enjoys warm, dry weather much like any other cactus. Despite being more tolerant of cold than most other cacti, withstanding temperatures as low as 14 degrees Fahrenheit, it will expand (and flower more) in warm climates. Remember that it must be kept dry, so adding more humidity—such as showering the plant—is not recommended.

Fertilization

There is no need for fertilizer when planting in garden soil outside. On occasion, though, feeding might need to happen indoors. When the plant begins to show signs of weakness or stops flowering, it is time to feed it. Use a well-balanced fertilizer.

Types of Prickly Pear Cactus

There are various varieties of prickly pears across the country in addition to the eastern one.

Beavertail (Opuntia basilaris): This pink-flowered species grows up to 8,000 feet in elevation and blooms in the spring.

Englemann (Opuntia engelmannii): This kind is distinguished by its deeply purple or red fruits and its widely spread spines.

Mojave (Opuntia erinacea): The mature plant grows best over 3,500 feet in elevation and doesn’t produce much fruit.

Santa Rita (Opuntia santa-rita): This eye-catching cultivar has vivid purple or blue-gray pads.

Pruning Eastern Prickly Pear Cactus

The prickly pear cactus doesn’t require pruning, but you can assist it keep its natural shape by removing a pad from the plant. Cut the pad at the base while holding it with tongs or a hand that is well-gloved.

Propagating Prickly Pear Cactus

Although prickly pears can be grown from seeds, it can take up to three years to produce a large plant, thus propagation is usually the better option. To accomplish this, take out a single pad that is at least six months old from the mother cactus. Give the slashed end a week or more to “heal” before allowing it to scab over.

The pad can then be planted with the cut end down in a soil and sand combination. Use stakes or other supports to maintain it upright since it will probably need to be supported on both sides until it establishes roots. Check for new roots after about a month by gently pushing on the plant; if it resists, you have roots. If it comes loose, give it more time. You can water the cactus sporadically after it’s able to stand on its own.

Potting and Repotting Prickly Pear Cactus

You can grow prickly pears in containers until they are big enough to require an area outside. Select a pot with plenty of drainage holes and succulent-specific potting soil when potting the prickly pear cactus. Start with a layer of gravel at the pot’s bottom for even greater drainage.

Start with a pot that is slightly wider than the biggest pad—a few inches. This pot will hold the cactus for one or two seasons, but when it starts to get rootbound, it’s time to transfer it to a bigger pot.

Overwintering

A prickly pear cactus grown in a pot should be brought indoors for the winter. In the usual home environment during the winter, it should fare quite well. If the cacti are outdoors, cover the base of the plant with a thick layer of mulch to shield them from the worst winter weather.

Common Pests and Plant Diseases

Giving cacti too much water is the most frequent issue encountered when cultivating them, as this can lead to the rot of their shallow, fibrous roots and the collapse of the plant. They are also vulnerable to a range of insect pests, such as mealybug and scale, which can be controlled with neem oil, rubbing alcohol, or, in extreme cases, pesticides.

The phyllosticta fungus can inflict damage on prickly pear cactus. Phyllosticta, caused by microscopic spores that invade the cactus’ tissue during excessively humid or rainy conditions, can chew holes into the pads of the plant, leading to the eventual development of huge, black blotches that finally scab over. Although phyllosticta is not fatal to prickly pear cacti, it is very contagious and can quickly spread to nearby plants when there is a strong wind or rain. Phyllosticta has no known cure; to prevent the disease from spreading, it is advised that diseased pads or cacti be disposed away.

How to Get Prickly Pear Cactus to Bloom?

A prickly pear cactus may not blossom in its early years of existence. Keep it in the brightest spot possible and fertilize once a month with a 5-10-10 fertilizer to help it along in later years. When it reaches maturity and starts to set fruit, make sure to reduce the number of blossoms to around 10 per pad in order to provide ample space for the fruit to grow.

Also Read: Rat Tail Cactus Complete Guide To Grow And Care

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