Mango Trees Complete Guide To Grow And Care

A mango trees (Mangifera indica), whether planted in the ground or in a huge pot, can form an interesting specimen, despite its challenging growth. When the conditions are ideal, this tree will produce a dense canopy of long, oblong green leaves, and from December to March, it will reward you with white blossoms. Mango trees fruit three to five months after they blossom.

The ideal growing conditions for mango trees are tropical and warmer subtropical regions without frequent frost. Mango trees can be found growing in California, Florida, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico in the United States. They grow quickly in general and should be planted in the spring. A single tree can yield fruit; its blossoms contain both male and female parts.

Compared to potted trees, mango trees planted in gardens have a higher chance of producing fruit. Maintaining an indoor mango tree long enough for it to mature and produce fruit is difficult. If given adequate sunlight, dwarf spotted mango trees—one of the smaller, more adaptable varieties—can bear fruit. Though it varies by region, the fruit is often ready to be picked in the summer or fall. Keep in mind that fruit peel, bark, and sap can all be hazardous to humans.

Mango Tree Overview

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Common Name Mango
Botanical Name  Mangifera indica
Family Anacardiaceae
Plant Type Fruit, tree
Size Up to 100 ft. tall, 35 ft. wide
Sun Exposure Full sun
Soil Type Loamy, moist, well-drained
Soil pH Acidic, neutral, alkaline
Bloom Time Winter
Hardiness Zones 9–11 (USDA)
Native Area Asia
Toxicity Toxic to people

How to Plant a Mango Tree?

When to Plant

When the temperature is still moderate in the spring, planting mango trees is the ideal idea. Make sure it won’t be exposed to any frost, though.

Selecting a Planting Site

A sunny location with loose, well-draining soil is ideal for mango trees. When choosing a planting location, take into account the mature size of the tree and take note of the site’s proximity to other plants and structures. For the lesser types of mango trees, container growing is a possibility.

Spacing, Depth, and Support

It all depends on the type of mango you are cultivating. Verify the mature canopy’s width and height to ensure you have adequate space to grow your tree. Planting saplings in their nursery container at the same depth as their growth is recommended. Sow seeds approximately 1/2 inch deep. Staking may be necessary to support saplings as they grow, particularly in areas with high winds.

Mango Tree Care

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Light Requirements

Mango trees need full sun, which is eight hours or more of direct sunshine most days. They will produce less fruit and flowers if they don’t get enough light. Although it’s ideal to take the pot outside as often as possible for maximum sunlight exposure, an indoor south-facing window can function.

Soil 

Numerous types of soil are acceptable to these trees. However, the ideal sandy loam is one that drains well and is light. The pH of the soil can vary from 5.5 to 7.5, which is mildly acidic to slightly alkaline.

Watering

Mango trees can withstand moderate drought, although it can have a detrimental effect on fruit yield. Avoid leaving the tree in damp soil; instead, water it as soon as the top few inches of soil start to dry up.

Temperature and Environment

If the air is dry, water a mango tree indoors every day. Mango trees enjoy humidity levels above 50%. Keep the temperature of your tree as high as you can, preferably above 70 degrees. Mango trees are not tolerant of cold weather, and blossoms and fruit can fall from the branches in as little as 40 degrees.

Fertilization

These trees don’t require a lot of fertilizer, and you probably won’t need to give them extra if your soil is already rich. In poor soil conditions, apply a slow-release balanced fertilizer according to the directions on the label.

Pollination

Bees, ants, flies, and other pollinators, in addition to wind, pollinate mango trees.

Types of Mango Trees

You shouldn’t expect the fruit of a mango tree grown from seed to resemble the parent plant. If you desire fruit, it’s usually advisable to purchase a grafted mango variety because it’s conceivable that the propagated tree will be sterile and not bear any fruit. Among the wise decisions are:

  • ‘Pickering’ develops into a bushy tree. You can expect it to flower in late winter and bear fruit in the summer.
  • ‘Ice Cream’ makes a good plant for the patio, as it grows to 6 feet tall. When ripe, the fruit is yellow-green rather than red.
  • ‘Cogshall’ is an excellent choice for growing in a container and produces fruit consistently.

Harvesting Mangoes

Fruit should be produced by a mango tree from seed in at least five to eight years; a nursery seedling should do so in around four years.
After the tree has blossomed, the mango fruit takes three to five months to ripen. The type of fruit determines its color when it is ripe. Usually picked by hand, the fruit must be handled carefully to prevent skin breakage.

Smelling fruit to check for sweetness is one method of determining if it’s ready. If you select unripe fruit, it can ripen over several days at room temperature in a paper bag. Mangos are good both raw and cooked. Mango pickles are commonly made from immature fruit. When fruit is fully ripe, refrigerate it and utilize it within a week. It is also capable of freezing.

How to Grow Mango Trees in Pots?

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The majority of dwarf mango trees grow to a height of 4 to 8 feet, which makes them perfect for container gardening. With container growing, you may avoid taking up a lot of garden space by keeping your tree in a location that is convenient for harvesting.

Spring is the ideal season to put mango plants in containers. Select a container with plenty of drainage holes that is at least 20 inches tall and broad. The ideal clay container is one that isn’t coated since the surplus moisture in the soil can escape through the walls. To make it easier to move, set it up on a plant caddie with moving rollers.

Pruning

To maintain a tolerable size, pruning should usually take place a year or two after the tree bears fruit. The trees can withstand severe trimming, although it may take a season for fruit production to resume. To increase airflow and let sunlight reach the remaining branches, thin out some canopy branches. As soon as a dead, damaged, or diseased branch appears, cut it off.

Propagating Mango Trees

Most mango trees are cultivated from seed or from nursery trees that have been grafted. They can also be grown from cuttings. Even while cuttings don’t always produce a robust root system, it’s a cheap and simple method of growing new trees. Summer is the ideal season to do this. How to do it is as follows:

  1. Take a young, thin branch from a healthy mango tree, about 6 to 8 inches long, then cut off the lower half of the branch’s leaves. Take out any fruit or flowers as well.

     

  2. Add rooting hormone to the cut end.

     

  3. In a tiny container filled with wet soilless potting mix, plant the cutting. There should be drainage holes in the container.

     

  4. Place the container in an area that is warm, humid, and has strong indirect light. Additionally, maintain a damp but not wet growing medium. To encourage root growth, place a heat mat underneath the container and maintain the soil’s temperature between 75 and 85 degrees Fahrenheit. It may take a few weeks before there is noticeable root growth.

How to Grow Mango Trees From Seed?

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Mango seeds must be carefully removed from their hairy outer husk in order for the seeds to germinate. Some plants only have one seed, whereas polyembryonic plants—like the mango tree—have multiple tiny seeds inside of their seeds.

A seed, such as an avocado seed, can be suspended over water to grow roots. Alternatively, you can put it in a container filled with seed starting mix, bulging side up, about 1/2 inch deep. In two weeks, it ought should sprout. Maintain a temperature higher than 70 degrees Fahrenheit for the seed, and make sure the growing medium is damp but not wet. When the seed starts its second growing season, wait to place it in a bigger container.

Potting and Repotting Mango Trees

Mangoes should be planted in potting soil that drains well, such as that used for citrus trees or palms. Mango trees need to be replanted when they are too top-heavy or root-bound for their container. They grow into little trees quite quickly—in four or five years. The size of your container and the type of tree you have will determine when this should happen.

To repot, carefully take the tree out of its old container, transfer it to a larger container, filling it with fresh potting mix to the same depth as before. Next, give it a thorough watering, making sure that any extra water runs out of the container.

Overwintering

Before it gets below fifty degrees Fahrenheit in the winter, potted mango trees should be moved inside. Plant them next to a bright, south-facing window; if needed, apply grow lights. It is important to keep the trees warm and shield them from drafts.

Common Pests and Plant Diseases

Aphids, mites, and mealybugs are a few frequent insect pests that mangos may have to deal with. Tiny webs on plants, clumps of white, powdery debris, and visible insects are all indicators of an infestation. Infestations should be treated as soon as you notice them to stop them from spreading to other parts of your collection. If your first attempts at treatment don’t work, move on to more dangerous substances. Start with the least harmful alternative first.

Additionally, mango plants are vulnerable to the fungal disease anthracnose, which results in black lesions that progressively develop. Trees with severe infections stop bearing fruit. Planting a resistant cultivar in full sun, where moisture will quickly evaporate, is the best preventive precaution.

Thoroughly humid conditions encourage anthracnose and other fungal infections. Mango tree anthracnose can occasionally be controlled with copper-based fungicides, but you shouldn’t apply fungicides within 14 days of a scheduled fruit harvest.

Also Read:  Jacaranda Tree Complete Guide To Grow And Care

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